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  • a
  • Awareness raising
    Public awareness, participation and community support are essential components of sustainable flood risk management. SEPA and the responsible authorities have a duty to raise public awareness of flood risk. This is undertaken both individually(...) Read More
  • c
  • Catchment
    The surface area of land that collects and drains water into a river or other waterway. Catchments can include both rural and urban areas. catchment/" style="" >Read More
  • Catchment Flood Management Plan (CFMP)
    Catchment Flood Management Plans (CFMPs) are a large-scale strategic planning framework for the integrated management of flood risks to people and the developed and natural environment in a sustainable manner. catchment-flood-management-plan-cfmp/" style="" >Read More
  • Coastal flooding
    Flooding that results from high sea levels or a combination of high sea levels and stormy conditions. flooding/" style="" >Read More
  • Cross section
    Surveyed information that describes the stream and the floodplain at a particular point along the stream. Read More
  • d
  • Detention basin
    A small, man-made reservoir connected to a waterway that provides a temporary storage for floodwaters, potentially reducing or delaying the likelihood or magnitude of downstream flooding. Read More
  • Disaster Area
    When a disaster is beyond the capabilities of state and local government to respond, the Governor must make a formal request to the President to declare the affected region a "disaster area." When the presidential declaration is enacted,(...) Read More
  • Discharge
    The amount of water that passes a specific point on a watercourse over a given period of time. Rates of discharge are usually measured in cubic feet per second. discharge/" style="" >Read More
  • Drainage Area
    The area (acres, square miles, etc.) from which water is carried off by a drainage system. Read More
  • Duration
    The period of time in minutes or hours in which rainfall of a certain intensity (inches per hour) occurs, or the period of time in which a river is above zero damage or major damage stage. duration/" style="" >Read More
  • e
  • Embankment
    Flood embankments are engineered earth fill structures designed to contain high river levels or protect against coastal flooding. They are commonly grass-covered, but may need additional protection against erosion by swiftly flowing water,(...) embankment/" style="" >Read More
  • f
  • Flood
    Relatively high streamflow which overtops the natural or artificial banks in any part of a creek, river, estuary, lake, dam or artificial channel. flood/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood Control
    Various activities and regulations that help reduce or prevent damages caused by flooding. Typical flood control activities include: structural flood control works (such as bank stabilization, levees, and drainage channels), acquisition of(...) flood-control/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood Damage Stage
    Generally comparable to "flood stage", but may be somewhat higher or lower than official flood stage designations; refers to the stage in a stream at which damage becomes significant at any specified location, whether caused by overflow or(...) flood-damage-stage/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood Damages
    Flood damages usually are classified as tangible or intangible. Tangible damages are the replacement costs or monetary loans resulting from the effects of floodwater and debris on crops, soil, buildings, furnishings, goods, roadways, utilities(...) flood-damages/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood Defense
    A structure (or system of structures) designed to prevent the inundation of land and property from watercourses and/or the sea. Such defenses may take the form of floodwalls or embankments or the management of water levels through drainage works. flood-defense/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood Directive
    European Directive 2007/60/EC on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks builds on and is closely related to the Water Framework Directive (see river basin management planning). It was transposed into Scots Law by the Flood Risk Management(...) flood-directive/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood Duration
    The total length of time the stream is above "flood stage". flood-duration/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood extent
    The area that has been affected by flooding, or is at risk of flooding from one or more sources for a particular likelihood. flood-extent/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood frequency
    The probability that a particular size/severity of flood will occur in a given year (see likelihood). flood-frequency/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood Hazard
    Potential for loss or damage to property or harm to persons due to flooding. flood-hazard/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood Management
    Flood management in the broad context of emergency management, is the implementation of three clusters of overlapping activities: prevention, response and recovery. flood-management/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood Mitigation
    Includes policies or structures that reduce the risk of floods to a community, either by preventing floodwater from entering the community or by reducing the potential damages or threats to public safety when flooding does occur. flood-mitigation/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood Prevention Scheme
    A flood prevention scheme is a scheme by a local authority for the elimination or reduction of the incidence or severity of emergencies and the mitigation of their effects within the authority area. flood-prevention-scheme/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood Proofing
    A combination of measures incorporated in the design, construction and alteration of individual buildings or structures subject to flooding, to reduce or eliminate flood damages. flood-proofing/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood Risk
    the statistical probability of an event occurring combined with the scale of the potential consequences of that event (such as loss, damage, harm, distress and disruption). flood-risk/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood Risk Assessment
    An assessment carried out by planning authorities, developers and applicants of flood risk and runoff and implications of land use applications or proposals, appropriate in scale and nature to the development proposal. flood-risk-assessment/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood Risk Management
    The activity of modifying the frequency or consequences of flooding to an appropriate level (commensurate with land use), and monitoring to make sure that flood risks remain at the proposed level. This should take account of other water level(...) flood-risk-management/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood storage
    An area, usually within floodplain where water is stored in time of flood. flood-storage/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood Volume
    The total volume of runoff during a flood, which is equal to the average rate of flow multiplied by time (flood duration). The term "inches runoff" is sometimes used to designate flood volume, which means that the flood volume would cover the(...) flood-volume/" style="" >Read More
  • Flood Warning
    A flood warning is issued when a river first exceeds its flood stage, and it may be reissued if a new river forecast for a forecast point or reach is significantly higher than a previous forecast. flood-warning/" style="" >Read More
  • Floodplain Management
    A program that uses corrective and preventative measures to reduce flood and erosion damage and preserve natural habitat and wildlife resources in floodprone areas. Some of these measures include: adopting and administering Floodplain(...) floodplain-management/" style="" >Read More
  • Floodplain Regulations
    A general term applied to the full range of codes, ordinances and other regulations pertaining to land uses and construction within flood plains. floodplain-regulations/" style="" >Read More
  • g
  • Geomorphology
    Processes of erosion, deposition and sediment transport that influence the physical form of a river and its floodplain. geomorphology/" style="" >Read More
  • Groundwater
    Water occurring below ground in natural formations (typically rocks, gravels and sands). groundwater/" style="" >Read More
  • h
  • Hydraulic Model
    A simplified representation of flow within a river system. Used within the Catchment Flood Management Plan to test the influence of flood risk management measures on flooding. Read More
  • Hydrograph
    A graph which shows how the discharge (discharge hydrograph) or water level (stage hydrograph) changes with time at any particular location. hydrograph/" style="" >Read More
  • Hydrology
    The scientific analysis of rainfall and runoff, its properties, phenomena and distribution; as well as water dynamics below the ground and in the atmosphere. hydrology/" style="" >Read More
  • l
  • Left Bank
    The land area to the left, adjacent to the river channel, looking downstream. Read More
  • o
  • Overland Flow Flooding:
    Flooding that occurs when intense local rainfall flows overland to reach a channel. Frequently, this conditions exists when runoff exceeds storm sewer or roadside ditch capacity, and the water can "pond" in the streets deep enough to flood(...) flooding/" style="" >Read More
  • p
  • Probability of occurrence
    The probability of a flood event being met or exceeded in any one year. For example, a probability of 1 in 100 corresponds to a 1 per cent or 100:1 chance of an event occurring in any one year. Read More
  • Probable Maximum Flood (PMF)
    An estimate of the largest possible flood that could occur at a particular location, under the most severe meteorological and hydrological conditions as they are currently understood. flood-pmf/" style="" >Read More
  • r
  • Reach
    A term used to describe a specific length of a stream or watercourse. For example, the term can be used to describe a section of a stream or watercourse between two bridges. Alternatively, the length of a river between two gaging stations. reach/" style="" >Read More
  • Resilience
    The capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses and systems to absorb stresses and maintain function during external stresses. resilience/" style="" >Read More
  • Response
    The combating of emergencies and the provision of rescue and immediate relief services. response/" style="" >Read More
  • Return Period
    The average time interval between occurrences of a hydrological event of a given or greater magnitude, usually expressed in years. Read More
  • Right Bank
    The land area to the right, adjacent to the river channel, looking downstream. Read More
  • Riparian Zone
    A stream and all the vegetation on its banks. Read More
  • Risk Assessment
    Considerations of the risks inherent in a project, leading to the development of actions to control, mitigate or accept them. Read More
  • Risk Management
    The systematic application of management policies, procedures and practices to the tasks of identifying, analyzing, assessing, treating and monitoring risk. Read More
  • s
  • Sediment
    Soil particles, sand, and minerals washed from the land into aquatic systems as a result of natural and human activities. sediment/" style="" >Read More
  • Shoreline Management Plan (SMP)
    Non-statutory plans to provide sustainable coastal defense policies (to prevent erosion by the sea and flooding of low-lying coastal land), and to set objectives for the future management of the shoreline. They are prepared by the Agency or(...) Read More
  • Stage
    The water-surface height of a stream, usually registered in feet and tenths of a float on a fixed staff gage. stage/" style="" >Read More
  • Storage
    Water naturally or artificially stored in surface or underground reservoirs. storage/" style="" >Read More
  • Storm surge
    The increase in sea level caused by the combined effects of low atmospheric pressure, wind and a high tide. Read More
  • Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA)
    The application of EIA to earlier, more strategic, tiers of decision-making policies, plans and programs. The practical application of SEA is still in its infancy in the UK, but will become a statutory requirement when implemented through an EC(...) Read More
  • Strategy Plan
    A long-term (usually 50 years or more) documented plan for river or coastal management, including all necessary work to meet defined flood and coastal defense objectives for the target area. A Strategy Plan is more detailed and usually covers a(...) Read More
  • Sub-catchment
    The catchment, for which each Catchment Flood Management Plan is to be produced for, is split into sub-catchments to ease the analysis of flooding in the catchment. sub-catchment/" style="" >Read More
  • Surface Water
    Water that flows in streams and rivers and in natural lakes, in wetlands, and in reservoirs constructed by humans. Read More
  • Surface Water Flooding
    Surface water flooding is the flooding that occurs from excess water that runs off across the surface of the land and does not come from a watercourse. There is very limited information available about flooding from this source. flooding/" style="" >Read More
  • Sustainability
    Sustainability is a concept, which deals with mankind's impact, through development, on the environment. Sustainable development is 'development which the meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to(...) sustainability/" style="" >Read More
  • Sustainable Drainage Systems
    A sequence of management practices and control structures designed to drain surface water in a more sustainable fashion than some conventional techniques (may also be referred to as sustainable drainage techniques). Read More
  • t
  • Tributary
    A stream that contributes its water to another stream or body of water. tributary/" style="" >Read More
  • v
  • Vulnerability
    The susceptibility of people and property to be harmed from the hazard. vulnerability/" style="" >Read More
  • w
  • Water Framework Directive (WFD)
    European Community Directive (2000/60/EC) on integrated river basin management. The WFD sets out environmental objectives for water status based on: ecological and chemical parameters; common monitoring and assessment strategies; arrangements(...) Read More
  • Watercourse
    A river, stream, canal, ditch, drain, cut, culvert, dyke, sluice, valve, overland carrier, millrace or layde. Water mains and sewers are not included in this definition. watercourse/" style="" >Read More
  • Watershed
    An area from which water drains into a lake, stream or other body of water. A watershed is also often referred to as a basin, with the basin boundary defined by a high ridge or divide, and with a lake or river located at a lower point. watershed/" style="" >Read More
  • Weir
    A structure typically constructed to control the timing and amount of storm water flowing into an adjacent detention basin. As the storm water level in the channel increases, water flows into the basin over the weir. The lower a weir, the(...) weir/" style="" >Read More
  • Wetlands
    Those areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water at a frequency and duration sufficient to support, and that under normal circumstances do support, a prevalence of vegetation typically adapted for life in saturated soil(...) wetlands/" style="" >Read More

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