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  • 1
  • 1-in-100-year return period flood 
    A large flood that has a one per cent chance of occurring in any given year. It can also be called a 1% flood or a 100-year flood, and is often written as 1:100 year flood. Although called a "1 in 100 year flood" there will not necessarily be(...) Read More
  • a
  • Annual Exceedance Probability (AEP) 
    It is the probability associated with a return period.  Thus an event with a return period of 50 years has an AEP of 1/T or 0.02 (2%). Read More
  • Attribute
    Descriptive (non spatial) attributes of geographic features. Read More
  • Awareness raising
    Public awareness, participation and community support are essential components of sustainable flood risk management. SEPA and the responsible authorities have a duty to raise public awareness of flood risk. This is undertaken both individually(...) Read More
  • b
  • Base map
    Map the contain base map data, upon which can be overlayed other thematic layers Read More
  • c
  • Cartography
    The science for map-making. It is the scientific, technological and aesthetic framework that aims at capturing, making, distributing and use of every kind of maps Read More
  • Catchment
    See Watershed Read More
  • Catchment Flood Management Plan (CFMP)
    Catchment Flood Management Plans (CFMPs) are a large-scale strategic planning framework for the integrated management of flood risks to people and the developed and natural environment in a sustainable manner. Read More
  • Channel 
    The open physical course of a waterway which transports surface rainwater. It has a bottom and its river banks are linearly arranged. Channels can be natural or artificial. They can have raised embankments along their sides to increase their(...) Read More
  • Civil Protection Mechanism
    It is the activation and escalation of the action of civil protection forces and their equipment at a central, regional and local level, for civil protection purposes and particularly to address emergencies from disasters or to control or(...) Read More
  • Climate change
    Any systematic change in the long-term statistics of climate elements (such as temperature, pressure, or winds) sustained over several decades or longer. Climate change may be due to natural external factors, such as changes in solar emission(...) Read More
  • Climate change hotspots
    Climate change hotspots have been defined as regions which display the largest variations in multiple statistics (mean, variability, and extremes) of climate variables Read More
  • Climate variability
    The temporal variations of the atmosphere– ocean system around a mean state. Typically, this term is used for long timescales (i.e. months to millennia and longer). The term natural climate variability is further used to identify climate(...) Read More
  • CO2 sinks
    A carbon sink is any reservoir, natural or otherwise, that absorbs more carbon than it releases, and thereby lowers the concentration of CO2 from the atmosphere. Natural sinks are the Earth’s soil, vegetation and the oceans. While the creation(...) Read More
  • Coastal flooding
    Floods in low-lying coastal areas from seawater, river estuaries or coastal lakes due to phenomena such as extreme tidal levels, storms or waves’ action. Read More
  • d
  • Data Set
    Set of data with the same theme or common attributes Read More
  • DEM (Digital Elevation Model)
    Terrain elevation data provided in digital form Read More
  • Design flood
    A flood of known magnitude or average recurrence interval, or a historic event which is selected for land use planning, emergency planning and engineering design purposes. The selection should be based on the understanding of flood behaviour(...) Read More
  • Detention basin
    A small, man-made reservoir connected to a waterway that provides a temporary storage for floodwaters, potentially reducing or delaying the likelihood or magnitude of downstream flooding. Read More
  • Discharge
    The amount of water that passes through a specific point on a watercourse over a given period of time. Read More
  • Drainage Area
    The area (acres, square miles, etc.) from which water is carried off by a drainage system. Read More
  • Drainage Basin
    See Watershed Read More
  • e
  • Early Flood Warning System
    A flood warning is issued when the river first exceeds the flood level and can be re-issued if a new forecast for the river and for the point to be reached is significantly higher than the previous forecast. Prevention through early warning(...) Read More
  • Ecosystem
    An ecosystem is a community of living organisms in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment, interacting as a system. These living and non-living components are linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. Read More
  • Embankment
    Flood embankments are engineered earth-fill structures designed to contain high river levels or protect against coastal flooding. They are commonly grass-covered, but may need additional protection against erosion by swiftly flowing water,(...) Read More
  • Emergency Preparedness
    A long-term action plan which aims at enhancing the overall ability and capacity of a country or community to effectively manage all types of emergencies and lead to a smooth transition from relief to recovery through sustainable development.(...) Read More
  • Encoding (charset)
    The assigment of a unique code to a information unit (e.g. character encoding based on ASCII or UTF-8 charset) Read More
  • f
  • File format
    The data structure in a computer file, which can follow a general standard or to be program specific. Usual file formats for spatial data are the Shapefile, GeoJSON, KML, GeoTiff etc Read More
  • Flash Flood 
    Flash floods are rapid and unexpected floods that occur suddenly, 6-12 hours or less after the corresponding heavy rainfall event. They occur after a short or no warning and they last for a very short time. They result from the sudden and rapid(...) Read More
  • Flood
    According to the European Commission Directive 2000/60/EC (European Commission 2007), ‘flood’ means the temporary covering by water of land not normally covered by water. This definition includes floods caused by rivers, mountain streams,(...) Read More
  • Flood Awareness
    An appreciation of the likely effects of flooding and knowledge of the relevant flood warning, response and evacuation procedures. In communities with a high degree of flood awareness, the response to flood warning is prompt and efficient. In(...) Read More
  • Flood Barrier 
    An earthen embankment (also known as berm or dyke), flood wall, or temporary wall constructed of sand bags or other materials, which is built to provide protection from floods. Read More
  • Flood Control
    Various activities and regulations that help reduce or prevent damages caused by flooding. Typical flood control activities include: structural flood control works (such as bank stabilization, levees, and drainage channels), acquisition of(...) Read More
  • Flood Damage Stage
    It refers to the stage in a stream at which damage becomes significant at any specified location, whether caused by overflow or other causes. It is generally comparable to flood stage, but may be somewhat higher or lower than official flood(...) Read More
  • Flood Damages
    Flood damages are usually classified as tangible or intangible. Tangible damages are the replacement costs or monetary loans resulting from the effects of floodwater and debris on crops, soil, buildings, furnishings, goods, roadways, utilities(...) Read More
  • Flood Defense
    A structure (or system of structures) designed to prevent the inundation of land and property from watercourses and/or the sea. Such defenses may take the form of floodwalls or embankments or the management of water levels through drainage works. Read More
  • Flood Directive
    The European Directive 2007/60/EC on the Assessment and Management of Flood Risks builds on and is closely related to the Water Framework Directive. The Directive requires Member States to assess if all watercourses and coastlines are at risk(...) Read More
  • Flood Discharge
    The volume of water per time unit in a specific position (m3/s) when the water overflows the riverbed. Read More
  • Flood Duration
    The total length of time the stream is above flood stage."" Read More
  • Flood Extent
    The area that has been affected by flooding, or is at risk of flooding from one or more sources with a specific probability. Read More
  • Flood forecasting
    Estimation of river height, streamflow, time of occurrence, and duration of a flood, especially of peak flow rate, at a specified point on a waterway, usually resulting from rainfall. Read More
  • Flood frequency
    The probability that a particular size/severity of flood will occur in a given year (see likelihood). Read More
  • Flood Hazard
    The possibility of a potentially catastrophic flood event within a given period for humans or the environment. Read More
  • Flood Hazard Maps 
    Maps showing the areas that are likely to be covered according to three kind of probabilities (low, medium, high) and supplemented by the type and extent of the flood, water levels, flow rate or relative direction of water flow. Read More
  • Flood Impact
    A flood can affect the environment, the economy of a region and its society. Especially when they occur in areas with large populations and intense economic activity, the damage they cause is very significant. Environmentally, a flood can have(...) Read More
  • Flood Management
    In the broad context of emergency management, flood management is the implementation of three clusters of overlapping activities: prevention, response and recovery. Read More
  • Flood Mitigation
    It includes policies or structures that reduce the risk of floods to a community, either by preventing floodwater from entering the community or by reducing the potential damages or threats to public safety when flooding does occur. Read More
  • Flood Risk
    It is defined as the combination of the statistical probability of the occurrence of a flood event with the potential consequences it will cause to human health, the environment, cultural heritage and economic activities (European Directive(...) Read More
  • Flood Risk Assessment
    An assessment carried out by planning authorities, developers and applicants of flood risk, runoff and implications of land use applications or proposals, which is appropriate in scale and nature to the development proposal. Read More
  • Flood Risk Management
    Practices concerning the prior detection, analysis and reduction of flood risks, focusing on the following elements: ·        Prevention: prevent flood damage, e.g. by banning the construction of buildings in flood-prone areas. ·       (...) Read More
  • Flood Risk Map
    Thematic map that contains information about flood risk Read More
  • Flood Risk Maps
    Maps that indicate the possible negative effects of floods, expressed in terms of the number of residents likely to be affected, the type of economic activity in the area that is likely to be affected, existing facilities that could cause(...) Read More
  • Flood Risk Plan (FRP)
    A document that sets out the appropriate targets and measures to prevent, protect and prepare against floods. Member States shall establish the FRPs and coordinate the planned action at the river basin level. Read More
  • Flood Risk Regulations
    Flood Risk Regulations implement the requirements of the European Floods Directive, which aims to provide a consistent approach to managing flood risk across Europe. The approach consists of a six-year planning cycle based on a four-stage(...) Read More
  • Flood Stage
    This term indicates that the water surface level within the natural banks of a stream is higher than normal and could start to cause damage to structures located in the floodplain. Read More
  • Flood Volume
    The total volume of runoff during a flood, which is equal to the average rate of flow multiplied by time (flood duration). The term inches runoff or “cm runoff” are sometimes used to designate flood volume which means that the flood volume(...) Read More
  • Flood Warning
    A flood warning is issued when a river first exceeds its flood stage, and it may be reissued if a new river forecast for a forecasting point or reach is significantly higher than a previous forecast. Read More
  • Flood Watershed
    It is the watershed whose limits are set by the upper water level during the maximum flood flow. Read More
  • Floodplain Management
    An action plan that uses corrective and preventative measures to reduce flood and erosion damage, and to preserve natural habitat and wildlife resources in flood-prone areas. Some of these measures include: adopting and administering Floodplain(...) Read More
  • Floodplain Management Measures
    The full range of techniques available to prevent or reduce flood risk, damage, human suffering and disruption. A measure to mitigate the impacts of flooding may include structural and non-structural works such as: levees, diversion channels,(...) Read More
  • Floodplains
    It is a flat or almost flat surface next to a stream or river that encounters occasional or periodic flooding. It includes the floodway, which consists of the stream channel and the adjacent areas that carry the flood flow, as well as the flood(...) Read More
  • Flow Rate
    It is a measure of the amount of water travelling past a point in a given amount of time. In rivers, the flow of water is typically reported in cubic meters per second (m3/s). A cubic meter is the volume of water contained in a cube of(...) Read More
  • g
  • Geographic Feature
    A geographic element (object) of a thematic layer Read More
  • Geomorphology
    Processes of erosion, deposition and sediment transport that influence the physical form of a river and its floodplain. Read More
  • Geospatial data (or spatial data)
    Data with reference to locations of geographic space Read More
  • GIS Portal
    Web application for the maintenance and distribution of geographic information (Thematic layers and maps) Read More
  • GIS-Geographical Information System
    An organized collection of computer hardware, software, geographic data, and personnel designed to efficiently capture, store, update, manipulate, analyze, and display all forms of geographically referenced information. Read More
  • Global warming
    The ongoing rise of the average temperature of the Earth's climate system. It is a major aspect of climate change which, in addition to rising global surface temperatures, also includes its effects, such as changes in precipitation. While there(...) Read More
  • Green Infrastructure
    A network of natural or semi-natural areas, in an urban or rural environment, designed to deal with climate challenges. It can also contribute to the support or restoration of natural and ecological processes. An example of green infrastructure(...) Read More
  • Greenhouse effect
    It refers to the heating exerted by the atmosphere on the Earth’s surface because certain atmospheric constituents (clouds, water vapor, carbon dioxide, etc.) absorb and emit infrared radiation. Heat is trapped radiatiely in the atmosphere and(...) Read More
  • Greenhouse gases
    Those gases, such as water vapour, carbon dioxide, ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons, that are efficient at absorbing the longer wavelengths of the infrared radiation emitted by the earth and atmosphere. The trapping of(...) Read More
  • Groundwater Flood
    Floods from groundwater are the result of a sharp rise in the groundwater level or the activation of intermittent flow sources. Read More
  • h
  • Human-induced (anthropogenic) climate change
    The term anthropogenic designates an effect or object resulting from human activity. Human (or anthropogenic) impact on the environment includes changes to biophysical environments and ecosystems, biodiversity, and natural resources caused(...) Read More
  • Hydraulic Model
    A simplified representation of flow within a river system. Used within the Catchment Flood Management Plan to test the influence of flood risk management measures on flooding. Read More
  • Hydraulic Structures
    The structures used to enclose, host, transport or control the flow of water, such as dams, pipelines, culverts, canals and bridges. Read More
  • Hydraulics
    The analysis of water or other liquid in motion, and its action.  Also a field of study dealing with the flow pattern and rate of water movement based on the principles of fluid mechanics. Read More
  • Hydrograph
    A graph which shows how the discharge (discharge hydrograph) or water level (stage hydrograph) changes with time at any particular location. Read More
  • Hydrographic Network
    It is the set of rivers and streams that drain an area (catchment area) from the water of atmospheric precipitation to the sea. Read More
  • Hydrological cycle
    The cycle in which water evaporates from the oceans and the land surface, is carried over the Earth in atmospheric circulation as water vapour, precipitates again as rain or snow, is intercepted by trees and vegetation, provides runoff on the(...) Read More
  • Hydrological Model
    It estimates the flow in a river arising from a given amount of rainfall falling into the catchment. Such models typically account for factors such as catchment area, topography, soils, geology and land use. Read More
  • Hydrology
    The scientific analysis of rainfall and runoff, its properties, phenomena and distribution, as well as water dynamics below the ground and in the atmosphere. Read More
  • i
  • Infiltration
    The penetration and movement of precipitation water within the soils. Read More
  • Invasive species
    An invasive species (also defined as an introduced species) is a species that is not native to a specific location. Human-caused climate change and the rise in invasive species are directly linked through the changing of ecosystems and the loss(...) Read More
  • k
  • Keywords
    Keywords that describe the thematic layer or the map Read More
  • l
  • Left Bank
    The land area to the left, adjacent to the river channel, looking downstream. Read More
  • Legend
    The part of a map that contains the explanation of the symbols, colors and all the elements that are used as design symbols on a map Read More
  • Levee
    See embankments Read More
  • Lineage
    It is a statement about the edit history or/and the overall quality of the resource Read More
  • m
  • Map Creation
    The process of map makng that, among other, contains layer overlaying and the application of cartographic styles. Read More
  • Map scale
    The ratio of the distance on a map and the distance on the earth surface Read More
  • Metadata
    Information about a data set. It may include the source of the data; its creation date and format; its projection, scale, resolution, and accuracy; and its reliability with regard to some standard. Read More
  • Metadata Author
    The party that is responsible for the creation of the resource metadata Read More
  • o
  • Overland Flow
    The sum of water and rainfall that do not penetrate into the ground but move on the surface through the rivers. Read More
  • Overlay
    A process of vertical placement of two or more datasets (thematic layers) with a common spatial reference system Read More
  • p
  • Peak flow rate / peak water flow 
    The maximum flow of water in a waterway, typically measured in cubic meters of water per second. This is a measure of the size (or magnitude) of a flood. Read More
  • Peak water level / flood peak 
    The highest level that water in a waterway reaches during a flood. This is a measure of the size (or magnitude) of a flood. Read More
  • Pre-industrial era
    Pre-industrial society refers to social attributes and forms of political and cultural organization that were prevalent before the advent of the Industrial Revolution, which occurred from 1750 to 1850. The term “pre-industrial” indicates is a(...) Read More
  • Probability of occurrence
    The probability of a flood event being met or exceeded in any one year. For example, a probability of 1 in 100 corresponds to a 1% or 1:100 chance of an event occurring within a year. Read More
  • Probable Maximum Flood (PMF)
    An estimate of the largest possible flood that could occur at a particular location, under the most severe meteorological and hydrological conditions as they are currently understood. Read More
  • r
  • Rainfall Flood
    Floods caused by heavy rainfall that inundate saturated natural or urban drainage systems. The excess water cannot be absorbed and overflows into roads or flows from hill slopes. Read More
  • Rainwater
    Precipitation from rain or snow that accumulates in a natural or artificial water system. Read More
  • Raster Layer
    Set of pixels that cover an area. It is a spatial data structure that contains columns and lines with values Read More
  • Reach
    A term used to describe a specific length of a stream or watercourse. For example, the term can be used to describe a section of a stream or watercourse between two bridges. Alternatively, the length of a river between two gauging stations. Read More
  • Remote Layers
    Thematic layers provided through the web by third parties Read More
  • Remote Services
    Geographic Information provided through the web by third parties Read More
  • Resilience
    The capacity of individuals, communities, institutions, businesses and systems to absorb stresses and maintain function during external stresses. Read More
  • Resource
    Information resource with a direct or indirect reference to a geographic location or area. It can be a thematic layer or a map Read More
  • Response
    The combating of emergencies and the provision of rescue and immediate relief services. Read More
  • Responsible Party
    The responsible party for providing information about the resource or its acquisition Read More
  • Return Period
    The average time between two consecutive occurrences of a hydrological event of a given or greater magnitude, usually expressed in years. Read More
  • Right Bank
    The land area to the right, adjacent to the river channel, looking downstream. Read More
  • Riparian Zone
    A stream and all the vegetation on its banks. Read More
  • Risk 
    The likelihood (or chance) of harmful consequences or expected losses (deaths, injuries, loss of property, life resources, economic activity interruption or environmental disaster) resulting from interactions between physical or anthropogenic(...) Read More
  • Risk Analysis
    A systematic use of available information to determine how often specified events may occur and the magnitude of their likely consequences, in order to establish the level of risk. This is normally undertaken as part of a flood study. Read More
  • River Flood
    The phenomenon in which a riverbed is periodically flooded with water and sediments and results in riverbed overflowing and its lateral migration. Read More
  • River flow / streamflow 
    The flow of water in a waterway, as measured by a stream/river gauging station at a particular location, usually expressed in terms of cubic meters of water per second. Read More
  • River height / water level 
    The level of water in a waterway as measured by a stream/river gauging station at a particular location along a waterway, expressed in meters above the Height Datum (i.e. mean sea level), or an alternative arbitrary 'zero' level. Read More
  • Runoff 
    The water flow that occurs when either (1) soil is infiltrated to full capacity; or (2) rainfall occurs at a rate greater than the rate at which it can infiltrate the soil. The resultant 'excess' water from rain and other sources flows over the land. Read More
  • s
  • Sea level rise
    It describes the long-term increase in mean sea level. The expression is popularly applied to anticipated sea level changes due to the greenhouse effect and associated global warming. Read More
  • Sediment
    Soil particles, sand and minerals washed from the land into aquatic systems as a result of natural and human activities. Read More
  • Spatial Extent
    The outline of the spatial extent that covers a thematic layer or a map Read More
  • Spatial reference system
    A mechanism for measuring geometric bodies, such as earth surface Read More
  • Storm surge
    The increase in sea level caused by the combined effects of low atmospheric pressure, wind and a high tide. Read More
  • Strategy Plan
    A long-term (usually 50 years or more) documented plan for river or coastal management, including all necessary work to meet defined flood and coastal defense objectives for the target area. A Strategy Plan is more detailed and usually covers a(...) Read More
  • Stream/River Gauging Station 
    It measures the height of the water in a river at a particular location. It may be manual or automated. Read More
  • Surface Water Flooding
    Surface water flooding is the flooding that occurs from excess water that runs off across the surface of the land and does not come from a watercourse. There is very limited information available about flooding from this source. Read More
  • t
  • Thematic layer
    A logical set of thematic data described and stored in a map library. Layers act as digital transparencies that can be laid atop one another for viewing or spatial analysis and be of vector or raster type Read More
  • Time Lag
    It is the time slice between the rainfall and the flood occurrence. Read More
  • Topic Category
    Topic Category is a top-level classification that helps to the thematic-based search of available resources Read More
  • Tributary
    A stream that contributes its water to another stream or body of water. Read More
  • u
  • Upstream – Downstream
    The term upstream (or upriver) refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. Likewise, the term downstream (or downriver) describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the(...) Read More
  • User
    The user that uploaded the thematic layer or created the map Read More
  • v
  • Vector Layer
    Data are organized according to the vector representation model where geospatial data are represented with the use of coordinates. In the Vector model points, lines and polygons are the main units of spatial information Read More
  • Vulnerability
    It is a set of situations and processes, which stem from physical, social, economic and environmental factors, which increase the sensitivity of the impact and the consequences of natural hazards to people and their properties. Read More
  • w
  • Water Framework Directive (WFD)
    The European Community Directive (2000/60/EC) on integrated river basin management. The WFD sets out environmental objectives for water status based on: ecological and chemical parameters; common monitoring and assessment strategies;(...) Read More
  • Watershed
    An area from which water drains physically into a lake, stream or other body of water. A watershed is also often referred to as a basin, with the basin boundary defined by a high ridge or divide, and with a lake or river located at a lower point. Read More
  • Waterway 
    An open physical course of a river/channel that transports surface rainwater. It has a bottom and its river banks are linearly arranged. Waterways can be natural or artificial. They can have raised embankments along their sides to increase(...) Read More
  • Web Map Service (WMS)
    A standard for distributing georeferenced map images on the web Read More
  • WebGIS
    Web interactive application for the display of geographic objects Read More
  • Weir
    A structure typically constructed to control the timing and amount of storm water flowing into an adjacent detention basin. As the storm water level in the channel increases, water flows into the basin over the weir. The lower a weir, the(...) Read More
  • Wetlands
    Areas that are inundated or saturated by surface or ground water either permanently or seasonally. Specifically, wetlands are characterized as having a water table that stands at or near the land surface for a long enough period each year to(...) Read More
  • z
  • Zoom-in/zoom-out
    The increase/decrease of the map scale Read More
  • τ
  • Τhematic map
    Map that contains selected thematic layers, which associate with a specific theme Read More

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